Sunday, June 7, 2020

How Long Are SAT Subject Tests

First things first: the SAT Subject Tests are each an hour long. So if you were worried that the subject tests were as long as the general SAT, breathe easy! Theyre quite a bit shorter. That means that you can take up to three of them on any given day that theyre offered. Number of Questions on an SAT Subject Test The physical length of the tests will vary, even though the timing doesnt. There are 20 SAT Subject Tests in five different areas: English, history, languages, mathematics and science. Its a good idea to know approximately how many minutes per question you have going in to test day, as this can range widely, from Mathematics with 50 questions to World History with almost twice that. As of March 2016, the number of questions per test was: English: approximately 60 (Multiple Choice) US History: 90 (Multiple Choice) World History: 95 (Multiple Choice) Spanish: 85 (Multiple Choice) Spanish with Listening: approximately 85 (Multiple Choice) French: 85 (Multiple Choice) French with Listening: approximately 85 (Multiple Choice) Chinese with Listening: 70-75 (Multiple Choice) Italian: 80-85 (Multiple Choice) German: 85 (Multiple Choice) German with Listening: approximately 85 (Multiple Choice) Modern Hebrew: 85 (Multiple Choice) Latin: 70-75 (Multiple Choice) Japanese with Listening: 80 (Multiple Choice) Korean with Listening: 80 (Multiple Choice) Mathematics 1: 50 (Multiple Choice) Mathematics 2: 50 (Multiple Choice) Biology E/M: 80 (Multiple Choice) Chemistry: 65 (Multiple Choice) Physics: 75 (Multiple Choice) Choosing Subject Tests Its not a great idea to  choose your Subject Tests based on how many or how few questions they have! A test with fewer questions means that each wrong answer knocks more points off your score, while a test with more questions means that time becomes more of a factor. Go with your strongest subjects to show colleges where your academic strengths lie. Because they all take an hour to complete, one great thing about the SAT Subject Tests is that, for the most part, you can change the subjects you take right up until the proctor hands you the test booklets. Be careful, though! There are some exceptions to this. In the first place, not all of the subject tests are offered on every test date. In the second place, if youve signed up for a language test with listening—or youve just decided you want to do one—the test center probably wont be able to accommodate you, unless youve registered for a listening test in advance. A Note on Subject Test Scoring Even though the Subject Tests only take an hour each, theyre still scored on the 200-800 scale used for the general SAT sections—so a lot of students will be on familiar ground there.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Ways to Prevent Genocide - 2798 Words

GENOCIDE PREVENTION Genocide Prevention The term genocide was developed during the Holocaust and announced an international crime during the 1948 United Nations Convention that focused on Prevention and Punishment of genocide as a crime. Genocide is, therefore, defined as deeds committed with the aim of destroying, in whole or partially, anethnical, national, religious or racial group.Such acts include, killing followers of the group, causing serious physical or mental harm to followers of the group, intentionallyimposing on the group conditions of living aimed at bringing about its physical loss, imposing measures envisioned to prevent new births within the group, or compulsorily transferring children of the society to a different group. The intent to destroy certain groups is unique to the characterisation of genocide. Closely related categories of international law crimes touching humanity aredescribed as adverse or calculated attacks against citizens.This timeline marks the growth of the term genocide and its systemati zation into international law. Genocide is an ancient old crime.Genocides in prehistory were often organised not just to eliminate enemy ethnicities, but to integrate and exploit their representatives. It was children and women who were spared the killings. They were seen as the group least able to retaliate, and as parents of offspring for the central group.By contrast, males were often killed. The roots of gender-cideagainst men and boys areShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The Holocaust783 Words   |  4 Pagesliving conditions were unfathomable and the way they were treated was unthinkable. Jews lived in crammed spaces and were treated like animals which soon led them to act like animals. The perpetrators of genocide are usually always punished. The victims of genocide are not always forgotten. The deniers of genocide always have the last word. Finally, there are ways to prevent genocides from occurring in the future. The claim that all perpetrators of genocide are never punished is outright false. TheRead MoreThe Genocide And Its Impact On The World s Existence706 Words   |  3 Pageswas unaware of all the genocide cases and their concepts that constitute what a genocide truly is that have occurred within the world’s existence. The UN Convention defines the term genocide (rape and killing) into five specific categories of the terminology. Out of the five elements described, the first, second, and fourth elements are the categories that I mostly saw demonstrated throughout the studies that we discussed within the class. These elements proclaim that genocide means the killing, causingRead MoreUNs Failures in Preventing Rwandan Genocide811 Words   |  3 PagesAccording to Aldelman (2005), the Rwanda 1994 genocide was the most disastrous case of mass murder the entire world has ever witnessed since WWII. The genocide resulted from the deliberate choice of a modern elite to foster hatred a nd fear to keep itself in power. According to Shah, (2006), this was a case of the majority Hutu who comprised 85% of the population turning against the Tutsi minority who made up 12% of the population in order to counter a growing political opposition within Rwanda. TheRead MoreThe Holocaust, Or The Holocaust857 Words   |  4 Pagesthe ukraine famine, and many other examples. A Crime Against Humanity is usually a genocide, a mass killing, and are usually for a reason, such as â€Å"The Holocaust†, Hitler wanted to rid the world, or at least Germany, of the Jews. There are many genocides happening today, such as ISIS taking over cities and executing hundreds of people every week. Many people have different idea’s on how to end these Crimes, or Genocides, and many of these ideas would work if they were used, such as Nations coming togetherRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Rwandan Genocide1421 Words   |  6 PagesThe Rwanda Genocide was an unfortunate case where thousands of deaths could have been prevented, but because of irresponsibility and selfishness of global governments’ innocent lives were lost. The Genocide began on April 6, 1994 and was, â€Å"initiated by the Hutu political elite and extremists and its military support, their prime targets were the Tutsi, as well as Hutu moderates.† (Hain 2) The Hutu made up majority of the population and government officials and enforced a government-assisted militaryRead MoreThe Terrible Acts of Rwandan Genocide1296 Words   |  6 PagesIn between 1930 and 1945, an event took place that changed the world in many ways. The Holocaust was a genocide that consisted of the decimation of one single race, the Jews. This solemn event is very similar (and also quite different) to another event that took place only four thousand miles away. Like the Holocaust, this event is was a genocide and it took place at Rwanda in 1994. This genocide was between the Hutus and Tutsis. These two groups have a lo ng background with each other that consistedRead MoreThe Conflict Of A Genocide1587 Words   |  7 PagesA genocide usually starts when people of one race or religion want to dispose of people of another race or religion. The underlying causes of conflict, which result in acts of genocide, often have deep historical roots. Stereotypes between groups develop over centuries. Ethnic and cultural differences often result in the formation of in-group and out-group thinking. Members of different races, religions, or cultures start to view each other as separate, alien, and â€Å"different.† In many regionsRead MoreChina s Cultural Revolution : China1292 Words   |  6 PagesVeronica Gregorio Hocutt ENG 2H 15 February 2016 China’s Cultural Revolution Introduction Genocide is the intentional carnage of a large group of people usually due to a particular religion or ethnicity. China’s Cultural Revolution lasted from 1966 until 1976 and dealt with Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Communist Party of China, wanting to realm the true communists. Both Night and China’s Cultural Revolution had to do with a dominant, political figure seeking the flawless race. In Night, numerousRead MoreThe Other Side Of America1518 Words   |  7 Pagesis more common than to hear them talk of extirpating them totally from the face of the earth, men women, and children† (Lewy). A genocide that is given little attention in America’s textbooks is the American Indian Genocide, which was led by white settlers. America’s true colors were shown in their infamous actions, which spanned hundreds of years. Throughout this genocide, America showed a hypocritical side—along with a violent and twisted personality—that is not widely known. The War with â€Å"Savages†Read MoreThe Rwandan Genocide Essay1747 Words   |  7 PagesThe Rwandan Genocide History has a funny way of repeating itself. After World War II, the United States and the rest of the international community promised to do all they could to prevent future genocides. However this was a promise they were unable to keep. In 1994 when Rwanda went through genocide the United States and U.N were absent, leaving the Tutsis to be brutally murdered by the Hutus. As a consequence 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed and dumped into mass graves. Once again

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The New World - 1669 Words

Europeans are known for trekking into western civilization or as they refer to as the â€Å"New World†, and take the land as their own. In some scenarios it is evident that the Europeans have proved to be beneficial to the inhabitants of the area, and help them economically. Venezuela, however can be regarded as the complete opposite. Spain saw Venezuela as an opportunity to make quick money due to the prominent pearl beds that lay off the coast of Venezuela and the myth of el dorado which ostensibly yields infinite riches. Nonetheless, the Spaniards took no consideration into the exploitation they caused when searching for riches and settling. This can be classified as quite the tragic story, but a select few individuals were able to muster enough courage to fight for their country. Venezuela yields a rich history in culture and the fight for independence that dates back to nearly 15,000 years ago when the first indigenous people crossed the Bering Strait from Siberia into what is formerly known as present day Venezuela. During this millennium, formerly itinerant groups developed into three main linguistic groups that had begun to proliferate quite substantially due to their extensive knowledge of agriculture: Arawak, Carib, and Chibcha. The Carib tribe resided predominantly in the central and eastern coast of Venezuela living off fishing and constant movement of agriculture in order to maintain the integrity of the land whilst not depriving it of its natural resources. ArawakShow MoreRelatedThe Columbian Exchange : A World Drift That Carried The Old And New World907 Words   |  4 PagesMany years ago, there was a world drift that carried the Old and New Worlds apart, which made a split between the North and South. The separation lasted so long it caused the d evelopment of rattlesnakes on one side of the Atlantic and vipers on the other. After 1492, human voyagers had their artificial establishment of connections through the Old and New World plants, animals, and bacteria, which was known as the Columbian Exchange. The exchange is the ecological events of the past millennium.TheRead MoreLed to a New World1139 Words   |  5 Pagespeople in the novel Brave New World, but it could happen to us one day. Picture, walking up and not knowing what is going on in the place that you thought was your home. It is happening all around us already. There are babies being made right now the way that their parents want them to look, some people don’t even want to have to give birth to them anymore, so they have their own children grown in jars like in the novel perhaps like clones, and some places around the world are now allowing doctorsRead MoreAmerica s New World Beginnings3128 Words   |  13 PagesChapter 1- New World Beginnings -The Shaping of North America . originally Earth had only one super continent, this continent split into several smaller ones, one of which would later be called North America . as millions of years passed North America’s geography began to change, mountain ranges sprung up, rivers flowed across the vast land, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the entire continent was changing . two million years ago an ice age swept across the world, North America was part ofRead MoreNew World Beginnings ( 33000 B.c1770 Words   |  8 PagesNew World Beginnings (33,000 B.C. - A.D. 1769) First Paragraph The earth was formed over 6 billion years ago, yet in terms of time, only recently was a Western civilization formed. Even more recently, the Americas were accidentally discovered, and they would prove to drastically influence and alter the future of earth. The Shaping of North America The Americas were formed from the single supercontinent that contained all of the earth’s landmass. Some 225 million years ago, a single supercontinentRead MoreEssay on The Columbian Exchange: Between the Old World and New World490 Words   |  2 Pagesis a global exchange of goods and ideas between the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) and the New World (America). When Columbus first discovered America, Spain wanted to set up colonies. Columbus found some people that he named â€Å"Indians.† They colonies started to trade with each other, and by doing do, they started the Columbian Exchange. Many countries were involved in this trade, including China, Africa and Italy. This exchange of new ideas, traditions, food, religion and diet changed culturesRead MoreBrave New World And The Invisible World Analysis1173 Words   |  5 Pagessociety’s influence is quite easily seen through H.G. Wells’ The Invisible Man and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Both tending to the common tale of the struggle finding one’s self in the world’s society, but in almost polar opposite sides of the spectrum. Whereas The Invisible Man tells the story of a single man making himself known, although not in the most positive of manners, Brave New World tells the story from the perspective of many points of view, all within the different social classes providedRead More The Impact of European Diseases in the New World Essay1987 Words   |  8 PagesThe Impact of European Diseases in the New World If science has taught us anything, it is that one event invariably effects countless others. This is no more evident than when a species is introduced into a new environment. Once a foreign species finds itself in new surroundings, it can either die or adapt. Often, these introduced species take over the environment, irrevocably changing it to fit their needs. This usually leads to a serious deteriorating in the well being of species currentlyRead MorePersonal Narratives of Exploring the New World, America2416 Words   |  10 Pagesthey write them about a significant event. Going back to Columbus, the early explorers and settlers took to writing personal narratives to tell their story of what they found in the New World. The New World has a geography that is unique to each area. One thing all of the early explorers and settlers to the new world had in common was that they all had to deal with the Indians. In each area there are differnat tribes of Indians, it is for that reason the personal narratives written by the explorersRead MoreIrony in Brave New World1022 Words   |  5 Pagesknow there is a monster in the closet, but the character does not). Many examples of irony are given in the novel Brave New World, a novel set in the future where humans are biologically engineered and conditioned for their role in society. The novel exemplifies irony because even though they have norms and regulations set, most people tend to not follow them, including the world leaders. In the first couple of chapters, Lenina, a young woman, is introduced. When we first meet her, we learn thatRead More Brave New World Essay962 Words   |  4 PagesBrave New World Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is a fictitious story about a future utopian society where people are mass-produced in laboratories. People have no emotions in this world where drugs and promiscuous sex are greatly encouraged. People are given labels according to their pre-natal intelligence assignment. These different classes all have specific roles within society and nobody is unhappy with their place. The Brave New World he was a fictitious story that sets up

What is Achieved Status free essay sample

Status is a Sociology term very often used to refer one’s position within the society as a child, youth or parent. A person may have a multiple status in the society. A man could be a son, father, husband, brother etc. As Linton says, â€Å"A status is closely related beliefs about expectation of those having status†. A simple way of identifying one’s status in the society is to see his position that he holds after a certain merit or biological. The society has two types of status; Achieved and Ascribed. We would understand both the status below: What is Achieved status? Achieved status is a social position one can attain on the basis of merit in the society. This status is gained over a person effort. It is something that has been earned or chosen by the person himself. Achieved status reflects personal skills, personality and behaviour. When a person earns a status or a position by his own achievements, efforts, knowledge and skills, it is called achieved status. We will write a custom essay sample on What is Achieved Status? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The concept was framed by anthropologist Ralph Linton. Examples of Achieved status can be understood better if you think about personalities of sportsman, actor, professor or a criminal. How is it different from Ascribed status? Ascribed status basically is the social status one is assigned at the time of birth. It is not the position one attains by his choice. In simple terms, it is the opposite of achieved status. Now, how is it different from Achieved status? This status is not earned by the person. It is neither gained by merit. Another very important fact is to understand that both Ascribed and Achieved status cannot be always right and left. A person may have a mix status too. Take the example of Hillary Clinton, who has achieved of Secretary of the state. It can be said that she would have not achieved this status, had she not come from a wealthy family. Another simple example of Ascribed status is, when a child is born in a rich family, he attains a rich socio-economic status. Further this child may attain an achieved status by his education, behaviour and skills. Social mobility Social Mobility is the movement of a person in the society. Movement could be within the family. Let’s understand this better by knowing the type of social mobility in the society. †¢Horizontal Mobility: a person who moves into a change in position in his profession and does not really attains a change in the society, it is called horizontal mobility. †¢Vertical Mobility: When there is a movement and there is a change in class, it is called vertical mobility. †¢Upward and Downward Mobility: Vertical mobility can further be upward and downward. Cultural capital Cultural capital is basically non-commercial social asset which promotes social mobility of a person beyond economic means. For Example: Dressing style of person, Style of speech or physical appearance. It is a French Sociological concept that gained immense widespread in the recent times.

Monday, April 20, 2020

The Federal Reserve System Modern Fascism and Absolute Power Essay Example

The Federal Reserve System: Modern Fascism and Absolute Power Essay The Federal Reserve System: Modern Fascism and Absolute Power Most Americans feel the United States of America is a beacon of democracy and raw capitalism, the leader of the â€Å"free† world. In theory, this is a perfectly well-reasoned assumption. The founding fathers had every intention of turning the new world into a full fledged democracy, devoid of any monarchy or source of totalitarian power. The constitution itself demands that our government be â€Å"of, for and by the people†, and be divided into complex units of checks and balances, designed to thwart any potential power struggle by one specific branch. In essence, the constitution of the United States is a perfect blueprint for democracy in its purest form, with power and control in the hands of its citizens. Unfortunately, this is not the case today. By giving up the right to print its own currency in 1913, the US Government bequeathed its powers to a select few, who have owned and operated this country ever since. They are the true masters of US domestic and foreign policy. Just like a corporation issues shares of stock to function as a productive entity, a country has to issue currency in order to fund its operations. This currency is the lifeblood of a nation, creating wealth for its citizens by fostering economic development and providing public infrastructure and services. In a true democracy, the government is owned by the citizens and operated by representatives of the population as a whole, who control and more importantly regulate the issuance of this currency. This is a critical point to remember. We will write a custom essay sample on The Federal Reserve System: Modern Fascism and Absolute Power specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Federal Reserve System: Modern Fascism and Absolute Power specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Federal Reserve System: Modern Fascism and Absolute Power specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Just like a public company [that issues too much stock] can be punished by the public markets for diluting its share structure, a nation’s currency can suffer the same effects through inflation if the government prints too much money relative to the value of the economy. This can be considered a hidden tax and represents a loss of buying power for a nation’s citizens. This loss of buying power [if left unchecked] destroys private wealth and can completely wipe out a country’s middle class, creating only two groups of citizens: the poor and the ultra-wealthy. Without a functioning and thriving middle class, a country is nothing more than a failed state. Because of this, the act of creating and regulating currency must be kept in the hands of those it serves (ie. the people). Any type of transference of this â€Å"absolute power† into private hands gives that person or entity complete control over a nation’s people and government. Why? Through the power of devaluation. Devaluation is basically â€Å"instant inflation† or â€Å"hyperinflation†. Overnight, devaluation can lower the value of a nation’s currency which in turn lowers the buying power for its citizens relative to other currencies. An example of this can be recalled from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, which started when the Thai Baht was devalued and Thailand’s stock market lost 75% of its value. Within a matter of days, the people of Thailand saw their savings destroyed. In essence, devaluation is the ultimate weapon since it can destroy an entire nation, but leave its wealth (ie. infrastructure) intact. One can quickly see why this power must never be transferred to private hands, yet this is exactly what happened to the United States in 1913. When the Federal Reserve Act was passed on December 23rd, 1913 , the power to print US currency was transferred from the public government into the hands of a private Delaware corporation , known as the Federal Reserve System. From this point forward, the United States Government was no longer issuing its own currency and instead, had to borrow money from a â€Å"private bank† and pay interest on the loan. For 94 years, the United States has been at the mercy of a single entity who with the stroke of a pen, could transfer an entire nation’s wealth and wipe out the entire middle class. Americans may vote for a political â€Å"choice† every four years, but the results for any given election are meaningless since the President of the United States has no more control over the Federal Reserve System than the average citizen. In essence, the President is a servant of the Federal Reserve System, not the people. Not a single President has ever challenged the constitutional basis for the Federal Reserve System, except for one. John F. Kennedy, being the incredible patriot and visionary that he was, knew the US Government had the constitutional right to print and issue its own currency. He saw the Federal Reserve System as a dangerously corrupt entity and set in motion a plan to usurp control of our nation’s money supply from this private bank, back into the hands of the American people. He issued Executive Order 11110 on June 4th, 1963 , which delegated the US Treasury to issue silver certificates against silver bullion. This alternative currency circumvented the Federal Reserve System since the US Government could once again carry out the printing of paper money, backed by silver held by the US Treasury. These new notes were legal tender and were in direct competition to notes issued by the Federal Reserve System. Unfortunately, President Kennedy was assassinated a few months later and the order was abandoned, thereby giving the Federal Reserve System a monopoly [once again] on the issuance of US currency where it has remained ever since. Benito Mussolini once said, â€Å"Fascism should more properly be called corporatism because it is the merger of state and corporate power. † The Federal Reserve System fits this description perfectly and represents the ultimate merger of state and corporate power. The idea that Fascism is simply a totalitarian practice based on racism is a misnomer. There is a more important component to Fascism, an economic component known as â€Å"Corporatism†, which was an essential ingredient of economic totalitarianism as practiced by Mussolini and Hitler . Essentially, the racist component of traditional Fascism is irrelevant and not necessary in order for it to succeed. It is merely a propaganda tool used to create a â€Å"rally round the flag† diversion based on xenophobic principles (as illustrated by the Nazi Party), while corporate control is exerted over the government behind the scenes. In the United States these policies were not called â€Å"fascism† but â€Å"planned capitalism† , with the Federal Reserve System at the center dictating economic policies, and exerting indirect control over domestic and foreign policies through elected officials thanks to its monopoly on currency issuance. The parallels between the Federal Reserve System and the power of currency issuance, vis-a-vis Sauron and the Ring of Power are marked examples of evil and its constant pursuit of absolute power. Domestic and interstate conflict has always been an important tool for the Federal Reserve System due to its ability to drive up our nation’s debt. One doesn’t need to look any further than our current â€Å"War on Terror† and its half-trillion dollar price tag to understand this fact. History has shown that evil prevails when good men fail to act. This is evident in America today since the Federal Reserve System is rooted in corruption and has no constitutional basis, but yet has managed to survive for almost 100 years in its current form. John F. Kennedy made a noble effort but unfortunately did not live to see his Executive Order implemented. Others have tried as well, such as Ron Paul, a House Representative from the 14th District of Texas, who has tried repeatedly to introduce legislation to abolish the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks, and to repeal the Federal Reserve Act altogether, while liquidating the assets of the Federal Reserve System and returning them to the US Treasury . Unfortunately, he has not been successful in his attempts, however, he is now running as a presidential candidate for 2008 . Perhaps his message will be heard by a louder audience this time. In conclusion, Fascism has undergone many incarnations and has been called many different things, by many different dictators. But at its core it is nothing more than what Mussolini said: the merger of state and corporate power. America today is at the mercy of a privately owned central bank that has absolute power over its citizens and elected officials. Much like the Fellowship of the Ring was engaged in a fierce battle over Middle Earth and the Ring of Power, we as citizens of the United States are locked in a battle over our country’s freedom from Fascist enterprise and its right to currency issuance. Just as Sauron desired to control the Ring of Power so he could dominate the people of Middle Earth, those who control the Federal Reserve System wish to control this country through the power of its currency and subsequent debt. They continue to exert control over our elected officials and have dictated virtually every major domestic and foreign policy since the beginning of the 20th century. The Fellowship was represented by a heterogeneous mixture of men, hobbits, elves, wizards, and others forces of good who swore to defend Middle Earth from Sauron, the Orcs, the Uruk-hai and other forces of evil. In the case of this country’s struggle against the domination of the Federal Reserve System, the modern day â€Å"Fellowship† is represented by grassroots movements consisting of current and ex-members of Congress, academics, entrepreneurs and average citizens, who recognize the importance of abolishing this power held by those who control the Federal Reserve System. Our nation’s survival well into the 21st century and beyond depends on it. Thanks to innovations like the Internet, the public’s ability to access information that was once kept hidden from view is now possible. This instills the hope that much like the Fellowship in LOTR was eventually able to thwart the efforts of Sauron, we as citizens of the United States can succeed in abolishing the Federal Reserve System and help restore this nation to the democratic vision of our Forefathers. ttp://www. federalreserve. gov/pubs/frseries/frseri. htm Delaware Corporation No. 0042817, https://sos-res. state. de. us/tin/GINameSearch. jsp http://www. lib. umich. edu/govdocs/jfkeo/eo/11110. htm DiLorenzo, Thomas J. 1994. Economic Fascism, The Freeman DiLorenzo, Thomas J. 1994. Economic Fascism, The Freeman http://www. house. gov/paul/legis/106/hr1148. htm http://www. ronpaul2008. com/

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Govenment Budgeting essays

Govenment Budgeting essays There are many different budgeting systems used throughout the history of the United States. The development of the different budgeting systems came out of the growing needs for efficiency, managing rapid growing budgets, public assurance of budget spending, and the need to cut programs effectively to reduce spending. In the more current budgeting, a combination of the different types are incorporated and implemented to maximize efficiency and productivity. Line item budgeting is primarily to ensure that money is spent in accordance with its allocations and that it is properly spent and accounted for. Line items in a budget represent a broad type of expenditure. Because all agencies practice similar types of budgeting, they will all use the same object code for their line item or object of expenditure. I work for a school district that uses line item budgeting. For example, if I were to purchase non-instructional supplies, I would use the object 4300 to identify the type of expenditure. This type of budgeting is easy to understand it is still used today in many areas of public finance. It also offers political leaders an easier way of reducing items budgeted rather than cutting programs entirely. Unlike other budgeting systems that focus more on results to promote planning and management, line item budgeting limits what benefits can be offered. The 1930s began a change in the way public money was budgeted. Because the federal budget was rapidly growing, there became a need for a budgeting system change as well. The performance budget developed out of this rapid growth and is generally organized around programs and activities. Performance measures are used to show how work and cost relate. Similarly to line item budgeting, expenditures are broken down into different areas. However, performance budgets break down the areas into many divisions, whereas, the line item budget has only one division. Performance budgeting helps develop ...

Friday, February 28, 2020

IPO analysis Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

IPO analysis - Case Study Example This technique, OpenIPO , was an invention aimed at making pricing and allocation of the IPO share a transparent and an easy-to-do process for the issuers and to do away with any possible conflicts of interests, as may arise, between the sponsors and issuers as had been the predominant case with the former/ traditional IPO. In addition, this company (W.R Hambrecht Company) also provides an option of the traditional technique, as may be the preference of the intended users who wish not use the new online initiatives. Other services such as the venture capital, M&A, market making, proprietary investments, financing of the private placements, and online brokerage businesses, are the traditional services that this institution still provide to ensure undoubted satisfaction levels of its clients. As if this is not enough, W.R Hambrecht Company further supports approximately 36 companies to attain their IPO via their new application (the online auction system) i.e., the Overstock.com and Go ogle.Inc, and other 15 companies to use the traditional style. Strategic considerations for entrepreneurs to evaluate while determining on whether to use Dutch auction or traditional IPO approach to taking a company public W.R Hambrecht Company recommends prior consultations and advisory services, as a method of strategic approach for entrepreneurs to effectively use while making business decisions on whether to use either the traditional IPO or the Dutch auction/OpenIPO. Such decisions have to be made under the premeditated considerations of; their institutions’ goals, pricing, shares allocations, and risks and returns that are linked to any of the options that a company would centralize on. For instance, both OpenIPO and traditional techniques present very different means of allocating their shares. A sponsor has higher priorities in making decisions that promptly determine the amount of shares that can be allocated to whomever suit their recommendations, an authority that is vulnerable to abuse, in the traditional IPO. This has the potential of impacting negatively in case a stock is mispriced. A substantial case is when a sponsor decides to allocate the available shares to individual accounts of business supervisory in other institutions of their business interest, a situation that is efficiently avoidable in the case of Dutch auction/ OpenIPO. OpenIPO does its allocation without malicious considerations such as personal interests in shares allocation. Thus, is guarantees fairness (no spinning) and only allocate shares to bid winners, i.e., those who placed their bids based on the price or higher factors. The second benefit of using the OpenIPO is that it guarantees an open platform for all irrespective of whether an investor is a larger institution or small enterprises, as had been the trend with the traditional IPO shares allocation. Characteristics of the OpenIPO that makes it to override the traditional IPO is that it allows limited incentives f or the small investor to purchase shares based on the underwriters’ quoted prices (which are lower), and quickly sell them off to gain a bigger profit margin. A second factor that OpenIPO will help to eliminate will be the possibility of investors to bid too low by ensuring that those who overbid and underbid are sold for the shares at equal prices. This second advantage would help the issuers to earn more, money they would have not realized while using the traditional I